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Its main design principles are ...

  • Simplicity
  • Expressiveness
  • Safety
  • Orthogonality
  • Efficiency

First example: The famous program "hello world"

outl("hello world !")

Second example: User-defined control structures

# a) iterate over any objects

proc for(any :$ x; args a; code c) { a.for(x) c.exec(); }
int i;
for(i,0..9) outl(i); # count from 0 to 9

# b) a loop similar to C, C++ or Java

proc Cfor(code c0,c1,c2,c3) {
  c0.exec();
  sys:for {
    if(! c1.eval()) break(1); 
    (c3,c2).exec()
  }
}

Cfor{ i = 0 }{ i <= 9 }{ i += 1 } { outl(i) } # count from 0 to 9

Features

  • Control structures can be defined by the user (type code)
  • Easy implementation of iterators (using types any and code)
  • Application-specific extension of types
  • Multiple inheritance of user-defined types
  • Polymorphism for built-in and user-defined types (type any)
  • Exception handling
  • Strict separation between procedures and functions
  • Overloading of procedures, functions, and operators
  • Symbolic call of procedures and functions
  • Variable number of arguments for procedures and functions (type args)
  • Multiple number of function return values
  • Variable number of function return values (type args)
  • Multiple assignments within one statement
  • Variable break of nested loops
  • Generic read and write procedures for all types (pin, pout)
  • Generic stream procedures for strings, files, and the console (in, out)
  • No need to implement copy constructors (generic operator '=')
  • No need to implement comparison operators (generic operator '==')
  • No need to implement destructors (generic procedures clear and del)
  • Dynamic data structures without new/delete operator (operator  '~')
  • Strong data typing, no implicit type conversion
  • Strict data initialisation
  • No free or dangling pointers
  • No arithmetic based on pointers
  • No memory leaks without using a garbage collector
  • Several range operators
  • Numeric data types with arbitrary length
  • Several built-in container types (lists, sets, hash arrays, graphs, etc.)
  • Iterators for container types, strings, files, and directories
  • Types, procedures, and functions can be nested
  • Comments can be nested
  • No need for declarations
  • No need for header files
  • No need for makefiles (module inclusion)
  • Almost every built-in type can be implemented with Nepal

History

28.08.2010Nepal 1.0 released
09.09.2011Nepal 1.1 released

Platforms

Windows, MacOS, Linux

License

Nepal is freeware.

Please refer to "About this site" for detailed terms of the license.